[149] In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control. He sailed for Africa in 204 and established a beachhead. Carthage was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. In 215 Hasdrubal eventually acted and besieged a pro-Roman town and offered battle at Dertosa. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. The Roman Senate authorized the raising of double-sized armies by Varro and Paullus, a force of 86,000 men, the largest in Roman history up to that point. [117] By 207 BC Hannibal had been confined to the extreme south of Italy and many of the cities and territories which had joined the Carthaginian cause had returned to their Roman allegiance. [15][17][16], Several of the city states in southern Italy allied themselves with Hannibal, or were captured when pro-Carthaginian factions betrayed their defences. His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. [143], In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 6] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. [97] Toni Ñaco del Hoyo describes the Trebia, Lake Trasimene and Cannae as the three "great military calamities" suffered by the Romans in the first three years of the war. [147] In a carefully planned assault in 209 BC, he captured the lightly-defended centre of Carthaginian power in Iberia, New Carthage,[147][148] seizing a vast booty of gold, silver and siege artillery. If either commander felt at a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging. [113] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. Carthage had been found in the 8th century BC by Phoenicians on the coast of North Africa. [47] During this period of Roman expansion, Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. These wars took place between 264 and 146 BC. what country was being fought over in the second punic war? From the founding of the Republic, the powerful Carthaginians had long supported Rome in its bid to secure its own independence and strength in Italy. [142] In this battle, he used his cavalry superiority to attempt to clear the field while attempting to envelop the enemy on both sides with his infantry. It seemed as though the superiority of the Romans at sea would enable them to choose the field of battle....…, During the decades between the wars, the Carthaginians had been busy building up an empire in Spain which...…. [50][51] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. He withdrew northward to rendezvous with Gnaeus Scipio's army, just as a third Carthaginian for… [76] A Roman fleet carrying the Iberian-bound army landed at Rome's ally Massalia (modern Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhone,[77] but Hannibal evaded the Romans and they continued to Iberia. First Punic War 264 to 241 BCE Second Punic War 214 to 201 BCE. However, in the war, they lost several army men and elephants. [160], The peace treaty the Romans subsequently imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. [112][114], Meanwhile the Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification. [116] Hannibal repeatedly defeated Roman armies, but wherever his main army was not active the Romans threatened Carthaginian-supporting towns or sought battle with Carthaginian or Carthaginian-allied detachments; frequently with success. [101] At least 67,500 Romans were killed or captured. All three wars were won by Rome, which subsequently emerged as the greatest military power in the Mediterranean Sea. The third war lasted nearly three years. After seventeen years of warfare, and at a great loss of life on both sides, Rome defeated Cárthage and came out on top as the new superpower … [90] Hannibal set an ambush[90] and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans,[91] including Flaminius,[90] and taking 10,000 prisoner. Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Punic_War&oldid=992384973, Short description is different from Wikidata, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 00:13. The heavily outnumbered Carthaginian infantry held out while this was happening until Hasdrubal charged into the legions from behind. [138] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. The term Punic is derived from Punicus, which is the Latin term for the Carthaginians. [65], In 219 BC a Carthaginian army under Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked Saguntum[66][67] and in spring 218 BC Rome declared war on Carthage. The Carthaginian council offered terms of surrender but reneged at the last minute, pinning its hopes on one last battle. [158] Hannibal was placed in command of another army, formed from his veterans from Italy and newly raised troops from Africa, but with few cavalry. During the long mainland campaign, fighting had continued as well on Sardinia and Sicily, which had become Rome’s chief sources of food. https://www.britannica.com/event/Second-Punic-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Second Punic War. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power. [74], Meanwhile, Hannibal assembled a Carthaginian army in New Carthage (modern Cartagena) and led it northwards along the Iberian coast in May or June. [81], The Carthaginians captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and their army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. Carthage and Rome had fought the 23-year-long First Punic War from 264 to 241 BC and the 17-year-long Second Punic War between 218 and 201 BC. The majority were deployed in southern Italy in field armies of approximately 20,000 men each. The Romans established a lodgement in north-east Iberia and the Carthaginians repeatedly attempted and failed to reduce it. The Second Punic War. [155] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. What did Hannibal do in the spring of 218 BC? [147], In the spring of 208 BC, Hasdrubal moved to engage Scipio at the Battle of Baecula. The Romans were still in their winter quarters. After the death or capture of more than 120,000 Roman troops in less than three years, many of Rome's Italian allies, notably Capua, defected to Carthage, giving Hannibal control over much of southern Italy. [166] In 149 BC, fifty years after the end of the Second Punic War, Carthage sent an army, under Hasdrubal, against Masinissa, the treaty notwithstanding. After his Spanish victory Scipio determined to invade the Carthaginian homeland. [17][14], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. [163] Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. Rome, exhausted by war, nevertheless raised and dispatched an army to check Hasdrubal. [104][105] However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. Second Punic War. There were three main military theatres during the war: Italy, where the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. The First Punic War (264-241 BC) The First Punic War was a conflict between Rome and Carthage. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The war saw land battles in Sicily early on, but focus soon shifted to naval battles around Sicily and Africa. Rome had emerged the victors in the Fi… In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. [33][35] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles; many modern historians agree, but nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. [87][96], News of the defeat caused a panic in Rome. [101] As a result, the Roman infantry was surrounded with no means of escape. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Nevertheless, Carthage recovered fr… The campaign ended in disaster at the Battle of Oroscopa[167] and anti-Carthaginian factions in Rome used the illicit military action as a pretext to prepare a punitive expedition. [97][98] Fabius was not popular among the soldiers, the Roman public or the Roman elite, since he avoided battle while Italy was being devastated by the enemy and his tactics would not lead to a quick end to the war. Timeline Of The Punic Wars. Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter among the Gauls. [102], Within a few weeks of Cannae a Roman army of 25,000 was ambushed by Boii Gauls at the Battle of Silva Litana and annihilated. Hannibal arrived with 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and an unknown number of elephants—the survivors of the 37 with which he left Iberia[79][80]—in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy). Carthage was Phoenician city founded in 814 BC, and the term Punic relates to the Latin and Greek words for Phoenician. [2] His works include a now-largely-lost manual on military tactics,[3] but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. [69], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. What connects the First and Second Punic Wars is Hamilcar Barca, a general that lead the reconquer of the Spanish Carthaginian territory. This battle confirmed Roman dominance in Italy. The first two wars were long—23 years and 17 years, separated by an interval of 23 years. [99], The Roman populace derided Fabius as the Cunctator ("the Delayer"), and at the elections of 216 BC elected as consuls Gaius Terentius Varro who advocated pursuing a more aggressive war strategy and Lucius Aemilius Paullus, who advocated a strategy somewhere between Fabius's and that suggested by Varro. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians to pay an even greater indemnity than the payment exacted immediately following the war. This meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated Treaty of Lutatius. He won several battles but still refrained from attacking the city of Rome, even after annihilating a huge Roman army at Cannae in 216. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians [30] On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. [2][11] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[12] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". [159] The decisive Battle of Zama followed in October 202 BC. [143][78], The Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections of local Celtiberian tribes to Rome. [135], In 205 BC Publius Scipio was given command of the legions in Sicily and allowed to enrol volunteers for his plan to end the war by an invasion of Africa. [154] After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. [124], A large Carthaginian army led by Himilco was sent to relieve the city in 213 BC. [note 2][9][19] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions. [122][123] Both Polybius' and Livy's accounts of the siege focus on Archimedes' invention of war machines to counteract Roman siege warfare, made more difficult by the strong defenses of the city. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. spain. Both battles ended in complete defeat for the Romans, as Hasdrubal had bribed the Romans' mercenaries to desert. [173][174] It was a century before the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city. [85] The consuls-elect recruited further legions, both Roman and from Rome's Latin allies; reinforced Sardinia and Sicily against the possibility of Carthaginian raids or invasion; placed garrisons at Tarentum and other places for similar reasons; built a fleet of 60 quinqueremes; and established supply depots at Ariminum and Arretium in preparation for marching north later in the year. [147][151] It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades, after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. They were divided into three ranks, of which the front rank also carried two javelins, while the second and third ranks had a thrusting spear instead. [112] It was the only time during the war that Carthage reinforced Hannibal. Most of the conflict took place on the island of Sicily, or in the waters surrounding Sicily. The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. The account of the Roman historian Livy, who relied heavily on Polybius, is much used by modern historians where Polybius's account is not extant. [83] The combined Roman force under the command of Sempronius was lured into combat by Hannibal on ground of his choosing at the Battle of the Trebia. The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) there was no punic war there was a first,second or third. [140] Mago was also recalled; he died of wounds on the voyage and some of his ships were intercepted by the Romans,[140] but 12,000 of his troops reached Carthage. But this calmed once Sempronius arrived, to preside over the consular elections in the usual manner. A brilliant defensive strategy conducted by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the Carthaginians without offering battle. These included the large city of Capua and the major port city of Tarentum (modern Taranto). [121][125] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. The Second Punic War 218 -202 BC. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. [172] The formerly Carthaginian territories became the Roman province of Africa. [120], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. [92][93] Hannibal hoped some of these allies could be persuaded to defect. It was the long-standing Roman procedure to elect two men each year, known as consuls, as senior magistrates, who at time of war would each lead an army. [109] By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. hannibal barca. Second Punic War begins. In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. Updates? Eventually, however, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, his son Hannibal, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal, Carthage acquired a new base in Spain, whence they could renew the war against Rome. The Carthaginians accepted Scipio’s terms for peace: Carthage was forced to pay an indemnity and surrender its navy, and Spain and the Mediterranean islands were ceded to Rome. In 219 BC Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked the pro-Roman city of Saguntum, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in spring 218 BC. [4][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. Thus, the two armies remained deadlocked on the Italian peninsula until 211 bce, when Rome recaptured the city of Capua. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the powerful cities of Carthage and Rome between 264 BC and 146 BC. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. [49] Relationships were good, the two states had several times declared their mutual friendship and there were strong commercial links. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Before the First Punic War, there was essentially … One was stationed at Arretium, and one on the Adriatic coast; they would be able to block Hannibal's possible advance into central Italy, and be well positioned to move north to operate in Cisalpine Gaul. [136], In 205 BC, Mago landed in Genua in north-west Italy with the remnants of his Spanish army (see § Iberia below). [100], Paullus and Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, and encamped 10 km (6 mi) away. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. From here, they established a trade network across the Mediterranean. [137], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. Rome demanded his withdrawal, but Carthage refused to recall him, and Rome declared war. [61][62] Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC. Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. Hostages were taken. Italy was free of enemy troops for the first time in 15 years. Scipio was awarded a triumph and received the agnomen "Africanus". [30][40] More formal battles were usually preceded by the two armies camping one to seven miles (2–12 km) apart for days or weeks; sometimes forming up in battle order each day. The Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive battle at Ilipa in 206 and forced the Carthaginians out of Spain. [13] Much of Polybius's account of the Second Punic War is missing, or only exists in fragmentary form. Also the invention of the corvus, a long battle bridge used to board enemy ships. [108] Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. [170] In the spring of 146 BC the Romans launched their final assault, systematically destroying the city and killing its inhabitants;[171] 50,000 survivors were sold into slavery. [103], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. The Carthaginians had a large navy and were the dominant maritime power in the western Mediterranean. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifte… [85] Two armies – of four legions each, two Roman and two allied, but with stronger than usual cavalry contingents[86] – were formed. Many were from North Africa which provided several types of fighter, including: close order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry[note 4] (also known as "heavy cavalry") carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[70][71] and captured the island of Malta. [30][44], Both states possessed large fleets throughout the war, but there were no large-scale naval clashes and Carthage never attempted to use its fleet decisively, effectively giving the Romans naval superiority for the course of the war. [107] Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents was to be paid over 50 years. Objective of the conflict: To expand the Carthaginian Empire through the Iberian Peninsula to Rome. The Second Samnite War lasted from 327 BC to 304 BC: 23 years. The First Punic War began in 264 BCE, when Rome and Carthage became interested in using settlements within Sicily to solve their own internal conflicts. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. [143] Hasdrubal now had no chance of reinforcing Hannibal in Italy. The Start of the Second Punic War 218 BC. [147] The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order; most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. [115], For 11 years after Cannae the war surged around southern Italy as cities went over to the Carthaginians or were taken by subterfuge, and the Romans recaptured them by siege or by suborning pro-Roman factions. The Second Punic War Ends (202-201 BC) In 202 BC, after the Battle of Zama, Hannibal met Scipio in a … Rather than attack Rome directly, he marched on Capua, the second largest town in Italy, hoping to incite the populace to rebel. [101] The historian Richard Miles describes Cannae as "Rome's greatest military disaster". [118], During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal[119] – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. Unaware of his presence offers, and should not be confused with the Aetolian League an... 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